Because mankind is so bellicose, there are many fortifications around the world, seeking to protect a city or country from invasions. The classic castle is such a place, designed to afford protection for the residents and also the surrounding townspeople. But we have already explored castles (ETE #12) so in this post I will focus on forts, typically outposts designed to stop an enemy from penetrating to the heart of a society. Some are built to repel naval incursions while others are designed to be effective against ground forces.
San Juan, Puerto Rico, must have had many enemies, since there are several forts around the city. The most prominent is El Morro.
Here is another view of El Morro.
El Morro is a Spanish fort and typical of the structures built by Spain in the New World. Another example is Castillo de San Marco, the fort of St Augustine, Florida, another Spanish colony.
Fort Sumter, Charleston, South Carolina, was the starting point for the Civil War.
The Citadel of Quebec City was a similar installation, although it was designed to repel ground invasions.
Louisbourg Fortress, in Cape Breton, Nova Scotia, has been turned into a “living museum” (ETE #23).
In Luxembourg City, the Casemates remain from the World War II fortifications.
The Italian town of Spoleto has its Rocca.
while San Marino has well-preserved outposts along its extensive walls. They are known as the Tre Castelli (Three Castles)
Here is another.
In Spain, the Alhambra was essentially a fortress and palace all in one.
England still preserves the remains of Roman forts along Hadrian’s Wall. We visited Housestead’s Fort..